Category Archives: Health

Put Your Heart into It: Exercise and Heart Health

Imagine that you’re a sailor on a sailboat. You and your four friends have been trained to sail, but you’re still new at it. The wind pushes you along peacefully for a while, but then a storm rises. It’s all hands on deck, working frantically against the wind and waves. You make it through that storm and a few more that follow and then one day you realize that you and your friends are stronger, faster, and better sailors than you were before that first storm. When the weather is good, it only takes three of you to man the boat where it once took all five.

heart sailors_0001Exercise is a storm for your heart. Exercise makes your heart work harder for a while which at first can feel like you’re being keelhauled*, but your heart is a fast learner. Before long it’s so used to the battening down the hatches that when your heart is at rest, it can take it easy. Studies show that the resting heart rate of people who exercise is lower than the resting heart rate of landlubbers*. A lubber’s heart (land or otherwise) is not being challenged, so it’s weaker and has to work harder to do less than an exercised heart. More storms makes for better sailors.

Storms have a way of cleaning the air because the extra wind and water (i.e. rain) remove the dust and particles. When you exercise, your blood moves faster which allows it to pulse into every tiny capillary at the tips of your fingers and toes. This allows the blood to bring more oxygen and nutrients to the cells and allows it to remove more junk from those cells. The strong blood flow also helps keep the arteries themselves clean, flexible, and inflammation free. It’s like a storm watering your garden and cleaning the air at the same time. Or sailors scrubbing the deck from jib to mizzenmast. Those are officially now my favorite sailing terms.

heart stormInactivity (keeping your ship docked, so to speak) is one of the major risk factors for heart disease. Exercise lowers your risk for heart disease by 45%. And that’s exercise at the recommended 2.5 hours of exercise every week level. Even if you’re a landlubber who spends most of her time in the brig and only halfheartedly hoists the mainsail, you’re still reducing your risk of heart disease by a LOT. Anchors aweigh! By the way, those recommended 2.5 hours can be 30 minutes per day five days per week, or 2.5 hours on a weekend, or 25 ten minute bouts of movement sprinkled throughout the week. A bit of climbing the rigging here, a bit of casting off there, maybe a bit of barnacle removal just for fun. Your heart gets stronger with every minute of exercise you do.

We can’t talk about sailing without adding pirates to the mix. Arr, Matey, did you know that your muscles are pirates? Well, they are when you exercise! Our bodies have strict rules about how oxygen is transported, how glucose is absorbed, and so on. When an exercise storm hits, pirates can break those rules. Under the strain of exercise, your pirate muscles are able to steal oxygen and glucose (i.e. energy) straight from the blood instead of waiting for a delivery. This is a very good thing. The heart has to deliver oxygen and glucose to the muscles anyway, so pirate muscles save it some work. I never said they were smart pirates; just that they steal.

heart-pirates.jpgHere are some heart-pumping exercise ideas to get you started:

Walking (to the mailbox, across the parking lot, around the block, etc), biking, running (after toddlers, not your mouth), jogging, vacuuming (under the beds counts double in my book), gardening, roller skating, swimming, jumping (like on a trampoline, not when you see a spider), playing tag (as in chase, not on social media), taking the stairs, jumping jacks (or jills or up the hills).

 

*Keelhauled: a truly awful punishment from sailing days that usually ended in death. Exercise can feel uncomfortable, but if it feels like you’re tied to a rope and being passed under the keel of a ship, maybe pick a different exercise.

*Landlubber: a lubber is old slang for a person who is lazy. Sailors added the land part to make fun of non-sailors. In modern terms we say “couch potato”.

 

Jesus replied: “‘Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your mind.’ Matthew 22:37

 

Sail back next week for Her Heart Sank onto the Bed: Sleep and Heart Health

 

References:

Sailing terms – http://brethrencoast.com/Pirate_Glossary.html

Exercise and heart health – http://www.nytimes.com/health/guides/specialtopic/physical-activity/exercise’s-effects-on-the-heart.html?print=1&mcubz=3

Exercise and heart health – http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/heart_vascular_institute/clinical_services/centers_excellence/womens_cardiovascular_health_center/patient_information/health_topics/exercise_heart.html

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Do You Have a Good Heart?

Kind hearted, his heart went out to her, from the bottom of my heart, have her heart set on it, let’s have a heart to heart. So many of our expressions demonstrate what humans have known for thousands of years: the heart (and the blood it pumps) is the literal and figurative center of our physical being. If a heart stops, a life stops. We’re going to take the next few weeks to learn about the heart and how best to care for it. Turns out it’s not that hard; easier than taking care of a guppy. I mean puppy. Guppies are way easier.

Label Circulatory System Picture Of A Circulatory System With Labels Human Body DiagramYour heart contracts (or pumps) rhythmically every second of every day of every year of your life. The force of the contraction (labor flashback! Anybody else grimace when they read that phrase?) pushes the blood through the arteries beginning with the big ones near the heart and ending with the teeny tiny itsy bitsy yellow polka dot bikini capillaries in your toes, organs, eyeballs, and everywhere in between.

Blood is the transportation system of the body; it is every highway, byway, back road and railroad put together. Wait, blood is liquid. Let’s make it all rivers creeks and wetlands and tributaries. Imagine if the whole world was like Venice, Italy. Don’t worry, my imaginary Venice is full of pasta and gelato too. It may be best to think of the heart as HeartDOT (Department of Transportation).

Map2_VeniceOnLineHeartDOT makes sure that traffic keeps moving. Blood delivers oxygen, nutrients, medical personnel (white blood cells), hormones, repair crews, and a host of other goods and services to the body. It also transports the body’s junk (dead viruses, bacteria, toxins, etc) to the Kidney Export Service for permanent removal from the body. HeartDOT doesn’t make the goods or the trash, it just keeps the flow moving.

Imagine for a moment that the entire world’s shipping and transportation shuts down. No boats, planes, rafts, not even people swimming from place to place. Each person is stuck at home. Within a few weeks, food runs out and people starve. Medical emergencies end in tragedy. Nothing new can be built. Trash piles up. Human life ends. In the grand scheme of our Earth-wide analogy, death takes weeks or months. Since the average heart beats 60-100 times per minute, blood transportation works much faster than our Venice Earth analogy and death takes mere minutes, not months.

river trafficNow imagine that transportation around Venice is not shut down, but travel has slowed. Storms have washed silt into the waterways, making them narrower. A tanker sank in the lagoon and traffic bottlenecks as vessels go around it. Priority is given to those carrying food and oxygen, but repair crews are delayed and trash removal is minimal.

A heart can fake it until it makes it for years, but the longer it has to struggle to pump, the more likely it is that it will stop working altogether (heart attack) or that blood flow to major organs will be interrupted (stroke). The good news is that if you read my blog regularly, you already know how to take care of your heart! The same healthy habits that help you lose weight also help your heart stay healthy…and help prevent type 2 diabetes and stroke, keep you looking younger…It’s a win-win-win-win-win.

Tune in next week for Put Your Heart Into It: Exercise and Heart Health!

 

Some men brought to him a paralyzed man, lying on a mat. When Jesus saw their faith, he said to the man, “Take heart, son; your sins are forgiven.” Matthew 9:2

 

Venice map (Venice Online), circulatory system (humananatomylibrary.com), river traffic (http://www.neatorama.com/2006/09/16/traffic-on-river-thames/)

The Diabetes Debate: Out to Lunch (part 7)

Brain: Ladies, I need you to help me order. Stomach says she’s empty and the cells are asking for quick energy like cookies, but now I know we have the glucose in the system, it’s just not reaching the cells. Cookies aren’t a good idea because they’ll just raise our blood glucose level even more.

Pancreas: What do we order?

Kidney 1: Water.

Brain: Besides water.

Muscle: Protein!

Brain: Protein turns to glucose too, just like cookies.

Kidney 2: But it takes much, much longer to do so. Protein is actually a good idea, Muscle.

diabetes debate 19Muscle: I need it to repair myself, but yeah, dude, leftovers becoming glucose is cool too.

Pancreas: Speaking of glucose, can we get a little regulation in that department?

Brain: What do you mean?

Pancreas: I mean, it’ll make my job a lot easier if you send in roughly the same amount of glucose at each meal.

Brain: How do I do that? Katie, any ideas?

Katie: There is so much information on a diabetic diet, I don’t know where to start.

Pancreas: Give us the super simple version; we’re hungry now.

Katie. Okay, first let’s talk about portions. Imagine a plate: you’re going to fill one quarter of the plate with protein, one quarter with starches or carbs, and half of the plate with non-starchy vegetables.

Brain: Wait a minute, this sounds just like your diet book.

diabetes-debate-21.jpgKatie: The habits that help you lose weight and get healthy are the same habits that help regulate your blood glucose level and control or prevent type two diabetes. A diabetic diet is all about balance and giving your body what it needs. It needs protein, carbohydrates, and vegetables.

Brain: Ugh, vegetables. Taste Buds aren’t going to like this.

Katie: They’ll learn to love it.

Muscle: What’s a starch?

Katie: Good question. Starchy foods are complex carbohydrates. Basically, the body breaks it down into glucose and uses it for energy. So you need protein for building and carbs for energy.

Muscle: And the non-starchy vegetables?

Katie: You need vegetables for vitamins, nutrients, fiber, stuff like that. Starchy veggies like potatoes, corn, and peas have more calories and more carbs than non-starchy vegetables like peppers or broccoli. Starchy foods—even starchy vegetables—raise your blood glucose level, so you’re going to pay special attention to them.

Pancreas: Those are the ones I want you to regulate, Brain. Send me the same amount at each meal.

Kidney 1: What else should we look out for?

Katie: Hidden sugar. Foods like cookies obviously have sugar, but dairy and fruit have natural sugars that aren’t bad for you, but will raise your blood glucose level. They’ll make more work for Pancreas.

Pancreas: I don’t like the sound of that. Can’t we slow down how fast the food is turned into glucose?

Katie: Yes, you can. Any time you eat whole grains instead of processed ones, you slow down glucose production. Whole grains have fiber and fiber makes your blood glucose level rise slowly instead of spiking.

diabetes-debate-20.jpgMuscle: Yo, Brain dude, can you order me a hoagie already?

Katie: One last thing: stay away from salty processed meats like deli meats and hot dogs.

Muscle: Dude, you’re killing me here!

Katie: Sorry, as a diabetic you need to be extra careful with your heart and your blood pressure. Salt and sodium increase your blood pressure.

Brain: Muscle, how about a chicken breast sandwich with lots of veggies piled on? I want you all to know that I’m going to make some changes around here. We can do this, Ladies. Working together, we can help control Body’s diabetes.

Pancreas: I told you it’s not my fault.

Brain: Don’t start that again, Pancreas, or you’ll be doing push-ups with Muscle.

Bladder: *clears throat* A toast: to a new way of life.

Kidneys, Brain, Pancreas, Muscle, Katie: Hear hear!

THE END

 

For more information about type two diabetes, check out the following articles:

http://healthyeating.sfgate.com/list-good-carbs-bad-carbs-6520.html

https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/diabetes/types/prediabetes-insulin-resistance

http://www.everydayhealth.com/type-2-diabetes/symptoms/warning-signs-of-type-2-diabetes/#09

http://www.diabetesincontrol.com/how-high-blood-sugars-damage-blood-vessels/

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/09/140911163219.htm

http://www.diabetes.org/?loc=logo general information diabetes type 1 and 2

https://www.endocrineweb.com/conditions/type-2-diabetes/type-2-diabetes-exercise exercise benefits

http://www.diabetesforecast.org/2015/jan-feb/13-best-sleep-tips.html?referrer=https://www.google.com/ sleep connection

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2992225/ exercise

https://www.diabetesselfmanagement.com/blog/drink-more-water/ water and diabetes

http://www.diabetes.co.uk/dehydration-and-diabetes.html water and diabetes

http://www.livestrong.com/article/239458-how-does-dehydration-affect-blood-glucose-levels/ water and diabetes

http://www.webmd.com/sleep-disorders/features/diabetes-lack-of-sleep#1 sleep connection

http://www.health.com/health/condition-article/0,,20188164,00.html Belly Fat Connection

http://www.webmd.com/diabetes/news/20050310/exercise-must-for-losing-deep-belly-fat Belly Fat

The Diabetes Debate: Urine Trouble Now (part 6)

Katie: Bladder, stop crying, please, it’s not your…Welcome back! We’re here with Bladder who’s going to pull herself together.

Bladder: I…I…*sniff*

Katie: Bladder, this interview has taken twice as long as planned because you’ve needed to empty yourself every thirty minutes. Please, please, take a deep breath and talk to me so we can finish this show and go home.

Bladder: *sniff* I’ll try.

Katie: Thank you. You have something you want to tell the rest of Body, correct? What is it you wanted to say?

Bladder: I know I can be annoying because I have to empty so often. *sniff* But do you know what would happen if I didn’t? The glucose would stay in the blood, the blood vessels will stay tense until they harden, the Eyes won’t be able to focus –

Katie: Yes, we, uh, we covered this in between bathroom breaks.

Bladder: I worry, Katie. *sniff* I worry what will happen to all of us. Life is short. Life is fragile. If our health declines, I don’t know where this Body is headed. What if Kidneys get too tired? What if Brain stops responding to their thirst signals and drinks less water because I fill so often?

Katie: Let’s talk about water, Bladder. A study linked chronic dehydration to chronic hyperglycemia. Have you found that to be true?

Bladder: Hyper what?

Katie: Hyperglycemia; chronic high blood glucose levels. Less water equals less blood equals high concentrations of glucose in the blood. If you don’t drink enough water every day for a long time, the higher glucose levels can lead to type two diabetes.

Bladder: *sniff* It’s the end of life as we know it. *sniff*

Katie: Bladder, don’t cry. There, there, weren’t you listening? It’s not too late to change. Muscle is going to walk, Brain is going to sleep more and to stop eating before Stomach signals she’s full so we can lose some weight. Kidneys and Pancreas are determined to keep the blood glucose levels down. We need you, Bladder. Let’s bring in the team and I want you to tell them why water is so important.

Bladder: *sniff* Okay. What if I can’t—

Katie: You’ll be fine. Ladies! Can you come in here, please? Everyone, welcome back. Okay, Bladder, go ahead.

Bladder: Well. *sniff* Now that we’re diabetic, we’ll need lots of water to clean out the glucose.

Kidney 2: Hear hear!

Bladder: Brain, as you start choosing more fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, we’ll need even more water.

Brain: What on Earth for?

Bladder: Plant based foods are full of fiber and fiber absorbs water. We’ll need extra water to keep the fiber moving.

Brain: Great, we’re eating sponges now.

Muscle: If we run low on water, I might cramp!

Brain: And I’ll get a headache. Suck it up.

Kidney 1: Brain, it’s easy to see if we’re getting dehydrated.

Brain: Dehydrated? We’re talking a little thirsty, here, right? Not that big of a deal.

Kidney 1: Mild dehydration, especially if it becomes chronic, can exacerbate our symptoms. According to our calculations-

Brain: Fine, fine. What do I do?

Bladder: Well, you can work with me. Whenever I empty, look at my urine.

Brain: Ew, gross. Eyes aren’t going to like this.

Bladder: If it’s clear, we’re okay. If it’s yellow, we need to drink more.

Pancreas: You can do a pinch test too. Pinch the skin on the back of Hand. If it bounces back quickly, we’re okay. If it stays pinched or the skin goes down slowly, we’re mildly dehydrated.

Brain: Geez, I need a cup of coffee.

Bladder: No coffee! It’s going to make me fill more!

Kidney 1: Just a little. Coffee’s actually good for us. It has magnesium and chromium which helps us use insulin. And it counts like water for hydration.

Bladder: Okay, fine.

Brain: Excellent! Come on, gals. Let’s get some coffee. Muscle, you can walk us there.

Katie: This concludes our show. Thanks for joining us and thank you to all of our guests.

Brain:  Let’s add food to this plan. Stomach just signaled she’s empty. Katie, care to join us?

Katie: I’d love to.

Part 7

The Diabetes Debate: Belly Fat Faceoff (part 5)

Brain: Hey, you, Belly Fat! We’ve got a bone to pick with you.

Belly Fat: You talking to me?

Kidney 1: You’re to blame for our diabetes.

Pancreas: I told you it’s not my fault.

Belly Fat: You gals are, like, rude.

diabetes debate 13Brain: Belly, what is this stuff?

Belly Fat: What, you don’t like tripping on acid?

Katie: Tripping over acid is more like it. Are these fatty acids? They’re all over the place.

Belly Fat: Whatever. Cleaning is lame.

Kidney 1: They’re messing with the insulin, Belly. Stop making them!

Brain: Belly, Liver’s cells are stuffed to the gills with those fatty acids.

Kidney 1: Blood’s full of them too.

Brain: She’s inflamed and we need her to regulate all kinds of stuff.

Belly Fat: This is, like, totally unfair. I didn’t do anything to Liver.

Brain: You’ve got her completely surrounded! Insulin can barely get through and when it does, Liver can’t respond normally because you’re smothering her in a chronic squishy fatty hug!

diabetes debate 14Kidney 1: We need Liver to help suck up the extra glucose from the blood. Let her go.

Belly Fat: Like, whatever. You’re a nerd and you’re a gross pee factory. Don’t even talk to me.

Katie: Belly, they have a point, actually. Studies show that if you’re overweight or obese, you’re 90 time more likely to develop type two diabetes.

Belly Fat: There’s fat all over this Body. Why pick on me?

Katie: You’re the only fat blocking access to the organs. If you were on the thighs or jiggling under the biceps, it’d be better.

Belly Fat: What a bunch of losers! I’m not changing for anybody.

Brain: I order you to leave!

Belly Fat: Not going to happen!

Brain: I’m going to order more vegetables, I’m going to go to bed early—

diabetes debate 15Katie: Actually, Muscle is the only one who can help. Diet can help you lose weight, but exercise is the only thing that removes visceral fat like Belly, here.

Brain: Muscle, you’re going to get your thirty minutes a day. Maybe more. I want this Belly out of here!

Muscle: Nice! I’m stoked, dude.

Belly Fat: Whatever, nerd.

Katie: Bladder’s full again, so we’ll be right back. Stay tuned for our final interview with the one, the only, the soon to be empty, Bladder.

Part 6

The Diabetes Debate: Brainiac (part 4)

Katie: Welcome back to Pass the Blame. We’re here with special guests Muscle and Brain. Brain? Where’d you go?

Brain: I’m hungry. I’m looking for a snack. I want a donut.

Katie: I’m glad you brought that up, Brain. Your blood glucose level is high right now, so the last thing you need is sugar.

Brain: Perhaps a cookie or two.

Katie: You want sugar because your cells are starving for energy and they’re sending you signals that they need food, but the glucose that gives them energy is there, it’s just stuck in the blood. The insulin keys aren’t working to unlock the cells and let the glucose in.

Brain: I read about this.

Katie: Yes, you probably did. You’ve been handed lots of pamphlets on type two diabetes recently.

Brain: It’s all a bit overwhelming, isn’t it?

Katie: Yes, I suppose, but you are the brain; I’m sure you can handle it.

Brain: Yeah, maybe. *yawn*

Muscle: Brain, I need to move more! Let’s go for a walk.

Brain: I’m sorry, Muscle, I’m too tired. Maybe tomorrow.

Muscle: You always say that.

Katie: Come on, Brain, you’re in charge here and Body needs to make some changes.

Kidney 1: We need you to take action.

Kidney 2: You need to fix this!

Katie: We’ve been, um, joined by the Kidney Twins. Welcome, ladies.

Brain: Me? Fix this? I’m having enough trouble keeping up with my regular duties. If you want me to take on a special project, I need down time. I need sleep.

Muscle: You get sleep!

Brain: Not the good kind. You all keep waking me up! If our blood glucose level goes down, Stomach is hungry. If our blood glucose level goes up, Bladder has to pee. Foot’s going nuts when neuropathy hits her and on top of that, now we have sleep apnea. Every few minutes Lung 1 and Lung 2 wake me up screaming, “We’re dying! We have no air! Oh, wait, we’re okay now.” It’s driving me crazy.

Muscle: I can help if you let me.

Brain: I’m tired.

Muscle: Well, push though it and let me move! Exercise helps you sleep better.

Kidney 1: It’ll help control the blood glucose level too.

Katie: Exercise or sleep?

Kidney 1: Both.

Brain: You know, Kidneys, keeping the blood glucose levels controlled will help me sleep better.

Kidney 2: Guess what, Brain: better sleep will help control the blood glucose level.

Pancreas: It’s a cycle, people. Pick a launching point and jump in already! I can’t keep on like this.

Katie: Oh, okay, now Pancreas has barged her way into the studio as well. Um, welcome Pancreas.

Brain: Why are you all looking at me?

Pancreas: Because all neurons lead to Rome!

Kidney 2: The cerebellum stops here.

Muscle: You give the orders, so you order some changes, dude!

Katie: Okay, ladies, let’s all calm down. Remember your blood pressure. If you all work together, you can manage your diabetes and Body can still have a long healthy life.

Pancreas: What do we do first?

Katie: Well, Muscle is offering to exercise. Exercise will help Brain sleep better and will help regulate your blood glucose level by removing some glucose from the blood without insulin’s help.

Brain: Okay, fine. Muscle, you can walk or something.

Muscle: I want thirty minutes a day.

Brain: What? You’re crazy!

Katie: You’ll get more blood flow and feel more awake.

Brain: Hmm, tempting. What else?

Katie: Well, you can lose weight. Being overweight increases your risk of type two diabetes.

Brain: I refuse to spend my valuable neurons counting the calories in rice cakes and cookie crumbs.

Katie: It doesn’t have to be that extreme. Start by eating smaller portions of what you eat now. Drink water instead of juice or soda so you don’t drink your calories. Make simple changes, one step at a time. You know, there’s a strong link between belly fat and diabetes. Losing even 7% of your—

Brain: Wait a minute. If we get rid of Belly Fat, this diabetes thing could all go away?

Katie: It’s not that simple, but it would really help if—

Brain: Come on, girls! This is Belly Fat’s fault! Let’s get her!

Katie: Ladies! Ladies, come back! We, um, we’ll be right back. I hope. Wait for me!

Part 5

The Diabetes Debate: Muscle Mania (part 3)

Katie: Today we’re discussing who’s to blame for Body’s recent diabetes type two diagnosis. We’re talking with special guest, Muscle.

Muscle: Wassup, yo.

Katie: Your Body’s blood glucose level, that’s what’s up. Any comments?

Muscle: Yeah, Dude. I have plenty of glycogen. Tell ‘em to put me in the game!

Katie: Glycogen? What’s that?

diabetes-debate-9.jpgMuscle: It’s this stuff that gives me energy. I store it until I need it. I’ve been dying to use it, man, but Brain’s been keeping me on the bench.

Katie: Did she say why?

Muscle: Straight up excuses. She’s busy, she’s tired, blah, blah, blah. I need to move, dude!

Katie: Will you exercising help Body lower her blood glucose level?

Muscle: Yo, man, I don’t know, I leave that brain stuff to Brain. All I know is that I store glycogen, when I move I use it, then I get more.

Katie: Where does glycogen come from? How do you get more?

Muscle: From the blood. It’s called glue…something. After I exercise, I suck in the glue thing, change it to glycogen, and save it so I’m always ready to move. I want to do squats so bad!

Katie: Wait, glue-something…do you mean glucose?

Muscle: Yeah, that sounds right. Can you ask Brain if I can do some squats?

Katie: Do you need insulin to suck in the glucose?

Muscle: The what?

Katie: The glue. Do you need insulin to take the glue-thing out of the blood?

Muscle: Nah, man, after I exercise I’m so hungry for it that I just take it. No insulin needed.

diabetes-debate-10_0001.jpgKatie: So if Body had exercised when she was insulin resistant, then you, Muscle, could have lowered her blood glucose level without insulin?

Muscle: If that’s what I said, then sure.

Katie: That’s amazing.

Muscle: Yes, I am. You should see me when I flex.

Katie: Muscle, my assistant just handed me some research. It says studies have shown that exercise can prevent or delay type 2 diabetes. One study showed that even if Body overeats, exercise will help her regulate her blood glucose level.

Muscle: Cool. I work with Heart a lot. She says she feels better when I move too.

Katie: I was just discussing the blood glucose level’s affects on the cardiovascular system with the Kidney Twins! Exercise is extra important for diabetics because diabetes increases Heart’s risk of a heart attack. Look at this study: exercise plus moderate weight loss—as little as ten pounds—lowers Body’s risk of type two diabetes by 58%!

Muscle: Sweet.

Katie: Let’s get Brain in here. We need to ask her about your squats.

Muscle: Cool, but before we talk to Brain, Bladder’s full again.

Katie: Then I suppose we’ll take a break. Stay with us: we’ll be right back.

Part 4